NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modem World
Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement ?
Nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another to earn their living. They do not have permanent place to live on. With changes in seasons, they change their places. The Gujiar Bakafwals of Jammu and Kashmir come down to the plains during winter and climb up to the hills during the summer. In plains, plateaus, and deserts they keep moving from one area to another.
The nomadic tribes moved to newer places so to obtain new. avenues for their livelihood The search for pasturelancl takes these nomads to other, places. The environment is affected and positively affected by such movements. The nomadic and pastoral communities keep clean the environment, remove the harmfuls from the places, where they stay. They, thus, keep the environment clean.
Discuss why the colonial government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the. law changed the lives of pastoralists:
— Waste Land rules
— Forest Acts.
— Ciminal Tribes Act
— Grazing Tax.
The colonial government in India brought, during their regime, numerous laws which changed the lives of the pastroalists. This is substantiated from the following :
(i) Wasteland Rules were enacted. By these rules, uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select indi viduals. In some places, the lands taken over were actually grazing tracts used regularly by pastoralists. This meant the decline of the pastures, and hence problems for the pastoralists who had to either change ^ to other professions of reduce their cattle x- number.
(ii) Forest Acts passed by the colonial government disallowed the pastoralists to any access to the forests. Accordingly, their movements were restricted severely. They could remain in the forests for limited time, and if they overstayed, they were punished. Their use of forests was restricted.
(iii) Criminal Tribes Act was another restriction on the pastoralists. The Criminal Tribes Act of 1871 classified certain communities to be criminal by nature and by birth; they were to live only in notified village settlements and not to move out without permit. The village police kept a vigil on them.
(iv) The colonial government levied a. grazing lax in, mid i9th century. The contractors were given permits to collect taxes who extracted the tax form the pastoralists at their will.
Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.
The following may be stated as some of the major reasons responsible for the loss of grazing lands by the Maasais:
1. With an international boundary between the British Kenya and the German Tanganyika in 1885, the Maasai partoralists were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanzania.
The Massai lost about 60% of their pre-colonial land, now confined to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.
2. From the late nineteenth century, the British colonial government in east. Africa also encouraged local peasant communities to expand cultivation. As cultivation expanded, pasture lands were turned into cultivated fields, in pre-colonial times, the Maasai. pastroalists had dominated their agricultural neighbors both economically and politically. By the end of colonial rule, the situation had reserved.
3. Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game, reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves; they could neither hunt animals nor graze their herds in these areas. Very often these reserves were in areas that had. traditionally been regular grazing grounds for Maasai herds.
There are many similarities in the way in which the modem world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes that were similar for the Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.
There are indeed, numerous similarities in the way in which the modem world forced, changes in the lives of the nomadic and pastoral communities. The following are the two such examples that were similar for the Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders:
1. The colonial governments put restrictions on the movement of the pastoralists in India and in East Africa so that they could not make use of the forests; they were not allowed grazing of the animals; they were not to use the forest land for their domestic purpose.
2. The colonial governments encouraged Cultivation by individual peasants, restricting pasture land for the nomadicl pastoral communities.
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modem World.