NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and The Russian Revolution
What were the social, economic and political conditions, in Russia before 1905?
Social Causes-Up to the end the 19th century, Russia was an autocratic country. It was ruled by an autocratic Czar. He ruled as he liked. His will was the sole source of law, of taxation and justice. He controlled the army and all the officials. Through his special position on the Holy Synod, he controlled even religious affairs. His autocratic rule was supported by the privileged nobles, who possessed land and serfs, and held all the chief offices in the Czar’s administration.
The mass of people were serfs. Serfs were, ‘slaves’. They worked on the estates of the nobles. They could be punished in any form by the nobles. They could even be sold as chattels by the nobles. Besides the serfs, there was a very small middle class in the towns. They were discontented with the backwardness-of Russia.
Economic Causes—Russia on the eve of 1904 revolution passed through a bad period. The workers had no assurance of job; the peasants were liberated only on papers through the Act of 1861; the prices of the essential goods were very high. The working conditions of the workers and the peasants were, miserable.
Political Conditions—Russia was in a critical condition. The country was ruled by the autocractic Czar and the cruel, bureaucracy. Russia’s defeat at the hands of Japan was a major setback. People were spied at every level. Their rights were not there; if there were any, they were associated by a range of duties.
In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe before 1917?
Before 1917, the working population in Russia was much different from the other countries in Europe. The vast majority of Russian’s population was agriculturists. About 85% of the Russian population lived on agriculture, whereas in other European countries such as France and Germany, the proportion was between 40% and 50%. The workers in Russia were exploited by the nobles and feudal lords; in other European countries, especially in France, the peasants fought for the nobles.
Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
The Russian Tsar rulers ruled autocractically; their reforms (especially the emancipation of the peasantry in 1861) did not work well. The bureaucracy, blessed by the Tsar, was tyrannical. The situation was grim on the’ eve of the February revolution. Earlier, during the world war which started in 1914, the Tsar fought the war without consulting either the Duma or the political leaders. Consequently, there were heavy losses in the war. This led to the to the collapse of Tserist autocreacy.
Make two lists : one with.the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what the impact of each was on Soviet history.
Main Events and Effects and the Leaders of February Revolution
- 26th – 50 demonstrators killed ih Znamenskaya Square
- 27th – Troops refuse to fire on demons trators, desertions, Prison, courts, and police . stations attacked and looted by angry crowds.
- Okhranka buildings set on fire. Garrison joins revolutionaries. Petrograd Soviet formed.
- 1st March—Order No. 1 of the Petrograd Soviet.
- 2nd – Nicholas II abdicates. Provisional Government formed under Prime Minister Prince Lvov.
- 10th – Bolshevik Central Committee meeting approves armed uprising.
- 11th-Congress of Soviets of the Northern. Region, until 13th.
- 20th – First meeting of the Military Revolutionary Committee. (Revolutionary Soviet Committee) of the Petrograd Soviet
- 25th – October Revolution is launched as MRC directs armed workers and soldiers to capture key buildings hi Petrograd. Winter Palace attacked at 9.40 pm and captured at 2 am. Kerensky flees Petro-grad. Opening of the 2nd All-Russian Congress of Soviets.
- 26th – Second Congress of Soviets; Men-sheviks and right SR delegates walk out in protest against the pervious days events. Decree on Peace and Decree on Land. Soviet government declared – the Council . of People’s Commissars (Bolshevik dom¬inated with Lenin as chairman).
While Kerensty and before him, Prince Lvov were the main leaders in the February Revolution; Lenin and Trotsky; were the leaders in the October revolution.
The February revolution overthrew autocratic Tsarist rule in Russia and established liberal-capitalist government. The October revolution overthrew the liberal-capitalist rule and established the first socialist state in the world.
What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution ?
The following were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution :
- Industries and banks, most of them, were nationalized.
- Partition of large houses according to family requirements.
- Banning of the old titles of aristocracy.
- New uniforms were designed for the army and officials— the Soviet hat was christened.
- The Bolshevik party was renamed as the Russian Communist Party.
- Trade. Unions were brought under the party Control.
- Cheka was established to find and punish the enemies of the party.
Write a few lines to show what you know about:
(ii) the Duma
(iii) women workers between 1900 and 1930
(iv) the Liberals.
(i) Kulaks : They were well-to-do peasants.
(ii) Duma : The Russian name for the Parliament before, the revolution.
(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930:
The women workers played significant role in the Russian revolutions of 1905, February 1917 and October, 1917. They not only took part in strikes, they even engineered strikes.
(iv) The Liberals:
The liberals, mostly the capitalists, were against the Tsarist monarchy; they wanted to overthrow it, which they did in February 1917, They, themselves, were overthrown in October, 1917.
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and The Russian Revolution.