NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social Justice

Law and Social Justice Class 8 Questions and Answers Civics Chapter 10

Civics Class 8 Chapter 10 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Why do we need a law on minimum wages?
Answer:
A law is needed on minimum wages so that the workers can get fair wages by their employers. Most often workers are denied for wages by the employers. The employers usually take advantage of the poverty of the workers and pay them less.

Question 2.
Find out :
1. What is the minimum wage for a construction worker in your state?
2. Do you think the minimum wage for a construction worker is adequate low or high?
3. Who sets the minimum wages?
Answer:

  1. It is about 150 per day
  2. Low
  3. The Ministry of labour sets the minimum wages.

Question 3.
Table 1 provides some important laws relating to the protection of these various interests. Columns (2) and (3) in Table 1 state why and for whom these laws are necessary. Based on discussions in the classroom, you have to complete the remaining entries in the table.
Table 1

Law Why is it necessary? Whose interests does the law protect?
1. Minimum Wages Act specifies that wages should not be below a specified minimum. Many workers are denied fair wages by their employers. Because they badly need work, workers have no bargaining power and are paid low wages. This law is meant to protect the interests of all workers; particularly, farm labourers, construction wor­kers, factory workers, domestic workers etc.
2. Law specifying that there be adequate safety measures in workplaces. For example, alarm system, emergency exits, properly-func­tioning machinery.
3. Law requiring that the quality of goods meet certain prescri­bed standard. For example electrical appliances have to meet safety standards. Consumers might be put to risk by +he poor quality of products such as electrical appliances, food, medicines.
4. Law requiring that the prices of essential goods are not high- For example, sugar kerosene, foodgrains. The interests of the poor who will otherwise be unable to afford these goods.
5. Laws requiring that factories do not pollute air or water.
6. Law against child labour in workplaces.
7. Law to form workers unions/ associations By organising themselves into unions, workers can use their combined power to demand fair wages and better working conditions.

Answer:

Law Why is it necessary? Whose interests does the law protect?
1. Minimum Wages Act specifies that wages should not be below a specified minimum. Many workers are denied fair wages by their employers. Because they badly need work, workers have no bargaining power and are paid low wages. This law is meant to protect the interests of all workers; particularly, farm labourers, construction wor­kers, factory workers, domestic workers etc.
2. Law specifying that there be adequate safety measures in workplaces. For example, alarm system, emergency exits, properly-func­tioning machinery. It is essential for safety of all parts of the body of the workers as well as for their lives’ safety and security. The all workers, employees, officials, owners and the property invested in the unit.
3. Law requiring that the quality of goods meet certain prescri­bed standard. For example electrical appliances have to meet safety standards. Consumers might be put to risk by the poor quality of products such as electrical appliances, food, medicines. This law is protecting the interests of the consumers.
4. Law requiring that the prices of essential goods are not high For example, sugar kerosene, foodgrains. Mainly, this law is necessary for poor people, people gett­ing fixed and low wages or pay packets people of middle classes etc. The interests of the poor who will otherwise be unable to afford these goods.
5. Law requiring that factories do not pollute air or water. It is necessary to have a check on the factory owners. To force legally to give complete com­pensation to working people and people of nearby areas.

To keep environment clean.

It is to protect the interest of workers and employees as well as the entire population. Safe and healthy environment is must for everyone.
6. Law against child labour in workplaces. It is necessary to protect the rights of the children. It protects the interests of the child. Children of every nation are the most valuable assets. The future of the country depends on them. In this way the law protect the interest of the nation also.
7. Law to form workers unions/ associations. By organising themselves into unions, workers can use their combined power to demand fair wages and better working conditions. This law will protect the interest of the labourers or workers.

Question 4.
Why do you think enforcement of safety laws is important in any factory?
Answer:
Enforcement of safety laws in any factory are important because in the absence of these laws there many occur serious disaster. For example, the Bhopal gas tragedy took place because the safety laws in our country were lose and whatever safety laws were there, there were not enforced.

Question 5.
Can you point to a few other situations were laws (a rules) exist but people do not follow them because of poor enforcement? (For example, our speeding by motorists). What are the problems in enforcement? Can you suggest some ways in which enforcement can be improved?
Answer:

  1. Standing on the footpath of a moving bus.
  2. Boarding a running bus.
  3. Not wearing a helmet while driving.
  4. Employing children under 14 years of ages as domestic helpers.
  5. Urinating at public places.
  6. Taking and giving dowry at the time of marriage.

For the above situation laws are not enforced because the government does not take them seriously. Even the public is not aware of it.

Enforcement can be improved if we follows the rules implemented properly.

Question 6.
A ‘clean environment is a public facility’. Can you explain this statement?
Answer:
Everyone needs or wants a clean environment. Since it is shared by many people at the same time, it is said to be a public facility.

Question 7.
Why do we need new laws?
Answer:
We need new laws to check pollution, clean rivers, banning the use of polythene bags, and crimes against women.

Question 8.
Why are companies and contractors able to violate environmental laws?
Answer:

Companies and contractors are able to violate environmental laws because these laws are not strictly enforced and also due to bribe.

Question 9.
Can you think of other ways in which the environment can be protected?
Answer:
The environment can be protected by the following ways :

  1. Minimum use of private vehicles
  2. Car-pooling
  3. Afforestation
  4. Stop use of polythene bags
  5. Proper disposal of sewage
  6. Stop polluting the rivers
  7. Use alternative sources of energy.

Question 10.
Talk to two workers (For example, construction workers, farm workers, factory workers, workers at any shop) to find out if they are receiving the minimum wages laid down by law.
Answer:
Construction Workers :
They are receiving below the minimum wages laid down by the law.

Factory Workers :
They are also receiving below the minimum wages.

Question 11.
What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Answer:

  1. They can get cheap labour.
  2. They can get plots at cheaper rates.
  3. They can spend the least on housing facilities for workers.
  4. They can cut cost by including lower safely measures.

Question 12.
Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss. Ans. No, the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did not get justice. Even after 25 years, the people are still fighting for safe drinking water, health care facilities and jobs affected by the Union Carbide factory.

Question 13.
What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Answer:
Law enforcement refers that the provisions of law must be implemented. The government is responsible for law enforcement. It must see that the law applicable is equal to all without any discrimination.

Enforcement of law is necessary. In case any law is not enforced it can lead to serious disaster. The most stricting example is the Bhopal gas tragedy. This incident occurred because the safely measures, were lose in our country and even there weak measures were not properly enforced.

Question 14.
How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Answer:

  1. The government should regularly inspect worksites and punish those who are found guilty of violating the law.
  2. The government should control the activities of individuals or private companies.

Question 15.
Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 kins away from the present location. Write about how your life would change? Read out your responses in the classroom.
Answer:
I am working in a chemical factory which is not far from my home. The government in its new policy has ordered to shift the chemical factory 100 kms away from the present location. It will cause many problems for me. I have to find a new house in that house which may not be suitable for my family and earning. The education of my children will also hamper. There is no good school in the locality. I am totally out of my mind, what to do and what not to do. If I leave the job it will be very difficult to find a new job. If I shift to the new place, my whole family will suffer. God! Please give show me the right path.

Question 16.
Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
Answer:
The first priority of the government is to think about the welfare of the people. For this, it performs various functions and enacts various measures. The most important function of the government is to provide public facilities to the people. These include water, electricity, sanitation, public transport, etc. It should make laws to protect the interests of the workers. The minimum wages of the workers should be according to the wages set by the Minimum Wages Act. The government should see that workers are not exploited by the employers at the work place. By enforcing such laws, the activities of private companies can also be checked by the government.

Question 17.
What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce the pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
Answer:
The sources of pollution in our area are as follows :
1. Air : Many vehicles both private and public emit hazardous gases.
2. Water : Disposal of factory wastes, without checking, into the Yamuna river, immersion of idols, throwing of garbage directly into the river body.
3. Soil : Most of the area is constructed. Thus, there is no soil pollution. Suggestions :
Answer:

  1.  Old vehicles whether private or public should be banned. Use of CNG in all vehicles. Strictly checking of pollution norms.
  2. All factories should be shifted from residential areas. Proper pollution norms should be enacted in industrial areas.
  3. Banning of immersion of idols, water disposal in the Yamuna river.

Question 18.
How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
Answer:
In earlier times environment was treated as free entity. There were no restrictions. Any industry could pollute the air and water. All the natural elements of the environment were polluted, whether it was our rivers, air, soil and groundwater. The health of the people was completely ignored.

The tragedy at the Bhopal Union Carbide brought change in perception. New laws were introduced by the government for the environment. It was decided that the polluters were to be held accountable for the damage due to the environment. It is now felt that the environment is something that people over generations will share. It should not be destroyed merely for the development of industry.

Question 19.
What do you think the famous cartoonist R.K. Laxman is trying to convey in this cartoon? How does it relate to the 2006 law that you read about on page 125?
Answer:
In the above cartoon, the cartoonist, R.K. Laxman, brings to light how we treat children of the same age differently, the child who belongs to a rich family gets love and sympathy from his mother because she feels it is wrong to burden kids. On the other hand she is also putting all the burden on another kid because he is a poor kid and a child labourer. In our society, child labour is a menance. Because of this all children do not get the same treatment. Thus, this is injustice.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science

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